@drsanjith - Dr. Sanjith Soman

M.B.B.S. Medical Communications Expert
https://www.drsanjith.com/
Advertisement
Low-dose aspirin has been considered useful for the management of heart disease and ischemic stroke, as well as for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and even cancer. Now the evidence is accumulating that low-dose aspirin used as an adjuvant treatment of cancer is associated with an increased survival and a reduction in metastatic spread. A recent meta-analysis of published studies that included low-dose aspirin in cancer has proven this posit. ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
This review included meta-analyses of 71 studies with a total of over 120 thousand patients taking aspirin. Pooled estimates from 29 observational studies with aspirin in colorectal cancer (CRC) demonstrated an overall Hazard Ratio for aspirin and CRC mortality as 0.72, indicating a 28% reduction. Similar estimates from 14 observational studies on breast cancer mortality gave an overall HR of 0.69, indicating a 31% reduction. For prostate cancer, 16 studies reported prostate cancer mortality HR to be 0.87, indicating a 13% reduction. Ten studies gave evidence of a reduction in metastatic spread; four with a pooled Odds Ratio of 0.31, indicating a 69% reduction and five with an OR of 0.79, indicating a 21% reduction. ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
This evidence merits wide discussion regarding whether or not it is adequate to justify the recommendation of low-dose therapeutic aspirin, and if it is, for which cancers?
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
Source: Elwood PC, et al. PLoS ONE. 2018.
Image credit: Pexels
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
3

Low-dose aspirin has been considered useful for the management of heart disease and ischemic stroke, as well as for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and even cancer. Now the evidence is accumulating that low-dose aspirin used as an ad

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter jejuni (CJ), and Shigella sp. are major causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Global deaths due to diarrhea have decreased in the last decade, partially due to the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine; however the most recent estimates indicate that there are still 54,900 deaths due to Shigella, 23,600 due to ETEC and 30,900 due to Campylobacter in children under five years of age in low to middle income countries. These three enteric pathogens remain serious health threats to western travelers and young children in resource-limited countries, making them apt target populations for vaccines. However there are no licensed vaccines against any of these pathogens. ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
Although conjugate vaccines are complex, they have been remarkably effective against a variety of other mucosal pathogens. A recent study explored whether conjugate vaccines incorporating antigens from these three pathogens can induce a multi-target immune response. The researchers found that the vaccines were immunogenic in mice as monovalent, bivalent and trivalent formulations. These data suggest that conjugate vaccines could be a platform for a multi-pathogen, multi-serotype vaccine against the three major causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
Source: Vaccine Journal
Image credit: Pexels
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
1

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter jejuni (CJ), and Shigella sp. are major causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Global deaths due to diarrhea have decreased in the last decade, partially due to the introduction of a rotavirus v

Although lifestyle modifications are universally acknowledged to be the first-line treatment of Type 2 Diabetes, adequate glycaemic control is difficult to achieve in majority of obese patients. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment option for obese patients with T2D, but is invasive, costly and not without its risks. Medications help manage the symptoms of diabetes, but they cannot prevent the progression of the disease.

Therapeutic fasting has the potential to fill this gap in diabetes care by providing similar intensive caloric restriction and hormonal benefits as bariatric surgery without the invasive surgery. Therapeutic fasting is defined as the controlled and voluntary abstinence from all calorie- containing food and drinks from a specified period of time. This differs from starvation, which is neither deliberate nor controlled. During fasting periods, patients are allowed to drink unlimited amounts of very low-calorie fluids such as water, coffee, tea and bone broth. A general multivitamin supplement is encouraged to provide adequate nutrients.

However, therapeutic fasting is virtually unheard of in the management of type 2 diabetes. A recent small case series in 3 patients showed that 24-hour fasting regimens may significantly reverse or eliminate the need for diabetic medication. In addition, the patients were also able to lose significant amounts of body weight, reduce their waist circumference and also reduce their glycated haemoglobin levels. This is an avenue that researchers should explore, with larger and better controlled clinical trials.

Source: BMJ Case Reports
Image credit: Pexels
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
2

Although lifestyle modifications are universally acknowledged to be the first-line treatment of Type 2 Diabetes, adequate glycaemic control is difficult to achieve in majority of obese patients. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment option for

Inflammation has been linked to tumor progression, and 𝐎𝐦𝐞𝐠𝐚-𝟑 𝐟𝐚𝐭𝐭𝐲 𝐚𝐜𝐢𝐝𝐬 𝐬𝐮𝐜𝐡 𝐚𝐬 𝐃𝐇𝐀 can suppress tumor growth through their conversion to epoxide metabolites or docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA), an endocannabinoid with antiproliferative activity. Results from a recent study showed that long-chain omega-3 fatty acid regulates mammary gland structure and density and adipose tissue inflammation, with a potential to decrease the risk of mammary gland tumor formation.

𝐏𝐢𝐦𝐨𝐳𝐢𝐝𝐞 is an antipsychotic drug of the diphenylbutylpiperidine class, discovered by Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1963. It has also been shown to suppress cell growth of breast cancer cells in vitro. A recent study showed that pimozide inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and promoted apoptosis, and may suppress angiogenesis.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated in tumor initiation, recurrence, metastatic spread and poor survival in breast cancer. As mitochondria evolved from bacteria, many antibiotics including 𝐝𝐨𝐱𝐲𝐜𝐲𝐜𝐥𝐢𝐧𝐞 target mitochondria. A recent study aimed to determine whether short-term pre-operative treatment with oral doxycycline results in reduction of CSCs in early breast cancer patients. Post-doxycycline tumor samples demonstrated a significant decrease in the stemness marker CD44 vs. pre-doxycycline tumor samples.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has high mortality rates due to lack of targeted therapies and increased likelihood of distant recurrence. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), a tumor suppressor, is expressed in 30% of TNBCs, associated with improved patient outcomes. A recent study demonstrated that therapeutic activation of ERβ elicits potent anticancer effects in TNBC through induction of a family of secreted proteins (cystatins), pointing towards the possibility of using 𝐄𝐬𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐝𝐢𝐨𝐥 as a potential treatment option for TNBC.

Source: LCPUFA: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia; DHA: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry; Pimozide: Oncotarget Journal; Doxycycline: Frontiers in Oncology; Estradiol: PNAS.
Image credit: Pexels
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
1

Inflammation has been linked to tumor progression, and 𝐎𝐦𝐞𝐠𝐚-𝟑 𝐟𝐚𝐭𝐭𝐲 𝐚𝐜𝐢𝐝𝐬 𝐬𝐮𝐜𝐡 𝐚𝐬 𝐃𝐇𝐀 can suppress tumor growth through their conversion to epoxide metabolites or docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA), an endocannabinoid with antiproliferative activity

Words of the day
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
0

Words of the day

MCN: Middle East Communications Network
Prospective and retrospective analyses of the BMI over time including 51,505 children demonstrated that accelerated weight gain during the age of 2-6 years increases future risk of obesity.
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
In retrospective analyses, most of the adolescents with normal weight were shown to have maintained a normal weight throughout childhood. Approximately half (53%) of the obese adolescents had been overweight or obese from 5 years of age onward.

In prospective analyses, almost 90% of the children who were obese at 3 years of age were overweight or obese in adolescence. Among the adolescents who were obese, the greatest acceleration in annual BMI increments had occurred between 2 and 6 years of age.

Early life nutrition is the real key to future health. Let's make a difference where it matters the most!

Source: NEJM
Image Credit: Pexels
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
3

Prospective and retrospective analyses of the BMI over time including 51,505 children demonstrated that accelerated weight gain during the age of 2-6 years increases future risk of obesity. ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ In retrospective analyses, most of the adolescents

Advertisement
Words of the day
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
0

Words of the day

MCN: Middle East Communications Network
According to the initial concept of central dogma, RNA has a passive, intermediary role as messenger, carrying information encoded in DNA to proteins. However, bulk of cellular RNAs are noncoding RNAs (i.e., RNAs that are not translated into proteins). Some small noncoding RNAs called microRNAs posttranscriptionally suppress the expression of host and viral genes by promoting mRNA decay and blocking protein translation.
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
The key that unlocked the small noncoding RNA world was the discovery by Joan A. Steitz and one of her graduate students (Michael Lerner) that some antinuclear antibodies, generated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases, selectively recognize both protein and RNA components of many of the abundant ribonucleoproteins.

The insights of Steitz’s pioneering studies are beginning to be translated into new classes of therapeutics. Last year, two antisense oligonucleotide RNA-based drugs, nusinersen and eteplirsen, that alter RNA splicing were approved to treat previously untreatable neurodegenerative diseases (spinal muscular atrophy and Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, respectively). The first drug to harness the microRNA pathway of RNA interference, patisiran, has just been approved to knock down transthyretin RNA for the treatment of a hereditary form of amyloidosis. These are probably just the first examples of a new pharmacopoeia of RNA-based drugs that will expand the universe of drug targets beyond those that are “druggable” with the use of small molecules and biologic agents.

Source: NEJM
Image credit: Pexels, NEJM
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
2

According to the initial concept of "central dogma", RNA has a passive, intermediary role as messenger, carrying information encoded in DNA to proteins. However, bulk of cellular RNAs are noncoding RNAs (i.e., RNAs that are not translated into protei

Advertisement
ʟɪᴍɪᴛɪɴɢ ʀᴇᴄʀᴇᴀᴛɪᴏɴᴀʟ ꜱᴄʀᴇᴇɴ ᴛɪᴍᴇ ᴀɴᴅ ᴇɴᴄᴏᴜʀᴀɢɪɴɢ ʜᴇᴀʟᴛʜʏ ꜱʟᴇᴇᴘ ɪᴍᴘʀᴏᴠᴇ ᴄᴏɢɴɪᴛɪᴏɴ ɪɴ ᴄʜɪʟᴅʀᴇɴ

Childhood and adolescence are crucial periods for brain development, and the behaviours during a typical 24 h period contribute to cognitive performance. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth recommend at least 60 min physical activity per day, 2 h or less recreational screen time per day, and 9–11 h sleep per night in children aged 8–11 years. A cross-sectional observational study obtained data from the first annual curated release of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study in USA between Sept 1, 2016, and Sept 15, 2017. The participants were 4524 US children aged 8–11 years from 20 study sites.

Superior global cognition were found in participants who met all three recommendations (β=3·89, 95% CI 1·43 to 6·34, p=0·0019), the screen time recommendation only (β=4·25, 2·50–6·01, p
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
1

ʟɪᴍɪᴛɪɴɢ ʀᴇᴄʀᴇᴀᴛɪᴏɴᴀʟ ꜱᴄʀᴇᴇɴ ᴛɪᴍᴇ ᴀɴᴅ ᴇɴᴄᴏᴜʀᴀɢɪɴɢ ʜᴇᴀʟᴛʜʏ ꜱʟᴇᴇᴘ ɪᴍᴘʀᴏᴠᴇ ᴄᴏɢɴɪᴛɪᴏɴ ɪɴ ᴄʜɪʟᴅʀᴇɴ Childhood and adolescence are crucial periods for brain development, and the behaviours during a typical 24 h period contribute to cognitive performance. T

The recent GLOBOCAN statistics estimate 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million cancer deaths worldwide in 2018. Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6%) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4%), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), colorectal cancer (10.2%), and prostate cancer (7.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality.⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
Recent studies in high‐income countries have indicated that from one‐third to two‐fifths of new cancer cases could be avoided by eliminating or reducing exposure to known lifestyle and environmental risk factors. However, international efforts to promote and implement primary prevention still lack momentum, probably owing to poor awareness towards the degree of progress and the benefits that prevention brings. ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
Source: Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN.
Image credit: Pexels
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
3

The recent GLOBOCAN statistics estimate 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million cancer deaths worldwide in 2018. Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6%) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4%), closely followed by female breast

Words of the day
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
2

Words of the day

MCN: Middle East Communications Network
Ever wished if only you could just clear your old age? 
Advanced age is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases and cellular senescence is causally implicated in generating age-related phenotypes. p16Ink4a is a biomarker for senescence, and gradual accumulation of p16Ink4a-expressing senescent cells are thought to contribute to the acquisition of age-related pathologies including atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis.

Earlier scientists had found that clearance of p16Ink4a-expressing cells delayed onset of age-related diseases and slowed down progression of already established age-related disorders. This implies that clearance of the senescent cell cache can prevent or delay tissue dysfunction and extend healthspan. In a recent study, senescent cells were shown to have a role in the initiation and progression of tau-mediated disease, implying that targeting senescent cells may also provide a therapeutic avenue for the treatment of these pathologies.

Source: Baker DJ, et al. Nature. 2011; Bussian TJ, et al. Nature. 2018.
Image credit: Pexels.
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
1

Ever wished if only you could just "clear" your old age? Advanced age is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases and cellular senescence is causally implicated in generating age-related phenotypes. p16Ink4a is a biomarker for senescence, and

Human health is influenced by a complex interaction between two components -- the genetic makeup and environmental factors. We have seen continual progress in genetic research with the genome project, however the same cannot be said about environmental factors. Although we measure things like air pollution at a very broad scale, we never tracked a microenvironment surrounding each individual at a personal level.
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
The exposome is this very concept, which is essentially a dynamic, individual cloud of microorganisms including viruses, chemicals, plant particulates, fungi, and even tiny microscopic animals that enter our private environment. No one really knows how vast the human exposome is or what kinds of things are in there. However, these signatures are distinct and are personalized to an individual even among people geographically close to each other. More insights into exposomes may hep us improve personalised healthcare experiences across the globe.

Source: www.cell.com
Image credit: Pexels
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
5

Human health is influenced by a complex interaction between two components -- the genetic makeup and environmental factors. We have seen continual progress in genetic research with the genome project, however the same cannot be said about environment

Ladies, it's time to adopt a dog. The University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine is working on ovarian cancer detection at an early stage by dogs using canine olfaction. It has been found that volatile organic compounds (VOC) or odorants are altered in the earliest stages of ovarian cancer, even before the cancer can be detected by current methods. The researchers plan to tap on this opportunity by utilizing the acute sense of smell in detection dogs.

Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. However, the disease is often misdiagnosed (usually as constipation, weight gain, bloating, or more frequent urination) and missed, leading to late detection. Unfortunately, an effective screening strategy does not currently exist for its detection. More than 60% of patients are diagnosed only after the disease has metastasized, when treatment is much less likely to produce a cure compared to when the disease is detected early. Any advance that can accurately detect ovarian cancer in its early stage can have a great impact on overall survival.

Source: https://penntoday.upenn.edu
Image credit: Pexels
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
1

Ladies, it's time to adopt a dog. The University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine is working on ovarian cancer detection at an early stage by dogs using canine olfaction. It has been found that volatile organic compounds (VOC) or odorant

A recent study published in the Journal of Immunology found that oral NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate) activates a splenic anti-inflammatory pathway.

Inflammatory macrophages and excessive TNF-a production have been implicated in the pathology of a broad range of disease states, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, irritable bowel disease, type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases.

Source: The Journal of Immunology
Image credit: Pexel
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
1

A recent study published in the Journal of Immunology found that oral NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate) activates a splenic anti-inflammatory pathway. Inflammatory macrophages and excessive TNF-a production have been implicated in the pathology of a broad

Sandoz, a Novartis division and the pioneer and global leader in biosimilars, today announced that the CHMP has adopted a positive opinion for marketing authorization of its proposed biosimilar pegfilgrastim®, a long-acting version of supportive oncology care medicine filgrastim.

Filgrastim is a biosimilar medicine that stimulates the production of white blood cells and stem cells. Sandoz is seeking approval for use of biosimilar pegfilgrastim in the same indication as the reference medicine, to reduce the duration of neutropenia and the incidence of febrile neutropenia due to chemotherapy. 
Source: https://www.novartis.com
Image credit: Pexels
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
1

Sandoz, a Novartis division and the pioneer and global leader in biosimilars, today announced that the CHMP has adopted a positive opinion for marketing authorization of its proposed biosimilar pegfilgrastim®, a long-acting version of supportive onco

AbbVie Receives Positive CHMP Opinion for a novel, chemotherapy-free combination of VENCLYXTO (venetoclax tablets) with Rituximab as a Treatment with a Fixed Duration for Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Who Have Received at Least One Prior Therapy. 
If approved by the European Commission (EC), VENCLYXTO plus rituximab would be the first chemotherapy-free combination regimen with a fixed duration of treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who have received at least one prior therapy. The positive opinion is based on the MURANO Phase 3 clinical trial.

Source: https://news.abbvie.com
Image credit: Pexels
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
2

AbbVie Receives Positive CHMP Opinion for a novel, chemotherapy-free combination of VENCLYXTO (venetoclax tablets) with Rituximab as a Treatment with a Fixed Duration for Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Who Have Received at Least One Prior

GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) announced that the CHMP has issued a positive opinion today supporting the use of Trelegy Ellipta (fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/ vilanterol) in a broader group of patients with moderate to severe COPD.

The expanded indication for the once-daily single inhaler triple therapy would enable use by patients not adequately treated by a LAMA and LABA. The CHMP’s recommendation is based on data from the IMPACT study.

Trelegy Ellipta was originally approved in the European Union (EU) in November 2017 as a maintenance treatment in adult patients with moderate to severe COPD who are not adequately treated by a combination of an ICS and a LABA.

Source: https://www.gsk.com
Image credit: Pexels
Dr. Sanjith Soman - @drsanjith Instagram Profile - inst4gram.com
drsanjith
1

GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) announced that the CHMP has issued a positive opinion today supporting the use of Trelegy Ellipta (fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/ vilanterol) in a broader group of patients with moderate to severe COPD. The expanded indicati